The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a standardized process in the automotive and aerospace industries that helps manufacturers and suppliers. Are all documents controlled? 5. Is the submission to PPAP 4th edition requirements? 6. Is there clear and proper detail provided on “Reason for Submission”?. There are five generally accepted PPAP submission levels. The PPAP manual contains detailed information, guidelines and sample documents useful for.
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PPAP Submission Items. R Y G FMEA reflects applicable engineering change documents g n . content of their PPAP to the expectations of Eaton for the part. List of PPAP Documents. Customer: Number of samples: Part: Drawing number: Submission date: Document. Requirement to submit. Number of comment. 1. This document is not meant as a training primer on PPAP or any of the many .. Submit PPAP to Hypertherm electronically (in one PDF file).
The organization shall use level 3 as the default level for all subinissions unless othenvise specified by the authorized customer representative. The authorized customer representative may identify a submission level, different from the default level, that is to be used with each organization, or organization and customer part number combiliation. Different customer locations may assign different submission levels to the same organization manufacturing location.
All of the f o r m referenced in this document may be replaced by computer-generated facsimiles. Acceptability of these facsimiles is to be confirmed with the authorized customer representative prior to the first submission.
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Table 4. Upon approval of the submission, the organization shall assure that future production continues to meet all customer requirements. For those organizations that have been classified as "self certifying" PPAP submission level 1 by a specific customer, submission of the required organization-approved documentation will be considered as customer approval unless the organization is advised otherwise.
The organization is therefore authorized to ship production quantities of the product, subject to releases from the customer scheduling activity. Interim Approval will only be granted when the organization has: PPAP re-submission is required to obtain a status of "approved.
The organization is responsible for implementing containment actions to ensure that only acceptable material is being shipped to the customer. Note 2: Parts with a status of "Interim Approval" are not to be considered "Approved. No additional shipments are authorized unless an extension of the interim approval is granted.
For bulk materials, the organization shall use the "Bulk Material Interim Approval" form, or its equivalent see Appendix F.
The submission shall be approved before production quantities may be shipped. Part Name and 2a. Customer Part Number: Engineering released finished end item part name and number.
Org, Part Number: Part number defined by the organization, if any. Shown on Drawing Number: The design record that specifies the customer part number being submitted. Show the change level and date of the design record. List all authorized engineering changes not yet incorporated in the design record but which are incorporated in the part.
Safety andlor Government Regulation: download Order Number: Enter the actual weight in kilograms to four decimal places unless otherwise specified by the customer. If requested by the customer, enter the checking aid number, its change level and date. Show the name and code assigned to the manufacturing site on the download orderlcontract.
Show the complete address of the location where the product was manufactured. For "Region," enter state, county, province, etc. Customer NameIDivision: Show the corporate name and division or operations group. Enter the downloader's name and code. Enter the model year, vehicle name, engine, transmission, etc. Substances of Concern: If submitted via IMDS include: If submitted via other customer format, enter the date customer confirmation was received.
Polymeric Parts Identification: Enter "Yes," "No," or "nla". Check the appropriate box es. For bulk materials, in addition to checking the appropriate box, check "Other" and write "Bulk Material" in the space provided. Identify the submission level requested by the customer. Check the appropriate boxes for dimensional, material tests, performance tests, appearance evaluation, and statistical data. Check the appropriate box.
If "no," enter the explanation in "comments" below. For instruction, see 2. Enter the number of pieces manufactured during the significant production run. Enter the time in hours taken for the significant production run. Provide any explanatory comments on the Submission Results or any deviations from the Declaration.
Attach additional information as appropriate. A responsible organization official, after verifying that the results show conformance to all customer requirements and that all required documentation is available, shall approve the declaration and provide Title, Phone Number, Fax Number, and E-mail address. Part Name Cust. Part Number Shown on Drawing No.
Are polymeric parts identified with appropriate I S 0 marking codes? Level 3 - Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to customer.
Level 5 - Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at organization's manufacturing location. I further affirm that these samples were produced at the production rate of 24 ours 1 also certify that documented evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review.
FAX No. Weight kg I Checking Aid No.
I Are polymeric parts identified with appropriate I S 0 marking codes? Level 2 - Warrant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to customer. Level 4 - Warrant and other requirements as defined by customer.
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I also certify that documented evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review. Is each Customer Tool properly tagged and numbered? Engineering released customer part number. Drawing Number: Use the number of the drawing on which the part is shown if different from the part number.
Part Name: Use the finished part name on the part drawing. Enter the code for specific downloader of part. Engineering change level and EIC date for this submission.
Organization Name: Organization responsible for submission include supplier if applicable. Manufacturing Location: Location where part was manufactured or assembled. SupplierNendor Code: Customer-assigned code for organization location where the part was manufactured or assembled.
Reason for Submission: Check box es explaining the reason for this submission. List all first surface tools, graining source s , grain type s , and grain and gloss masters used to check part. Pre-Texture Evaluation: To be completed by authorized customer representative not used by GM. Color Suffix: Use alphanumeric or numeric color identification. Tristimulus Data: List numerical colorimeter data of submission part as compared to the customer-authorized master.
Master Number: Enter alphanumeric master identification not used by Ford. Master Date: Enter the date on which the master was approved. Material Type: Identify first surface finish and substrate e. Material Source: Identify first surface and substrate suppliers. Visual assessment by customer. Color Shipping Suffix: Color part number suffix or color number. Part Disposition: To be determined by customer approved or rejected. General comments by the organization or customer optional.
Organization Signature, Phone No. Organization certification that the document information is accurate and meets all requirements specified.
Authorized Customer Representative approval signature. Organizations are responsible for applying PAP to their suppliers of ingredients which have organization-designated special characteristics. Examples of bulk material include, but are not limited to: Any customer-specific requirements shall be documented on the Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist.
Use the Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist as follows: For each item listed in the checklist either enter a target date for completion of the element or enter "NR" for Not Required. Primary Responsibility - Customer: Identify by name or function the individual who will review and approve the element.
Primary Responsibility - Organization: Identify by name or function the individual who will assemble and assure the completeness of the element to be reviewed. Identify any qualifying information or references to attached documents that provide specific information regarding the element.
Approved by: Enter the initials of the authorized customer representative who has reviewed and accepted the element. Plan agreed to by: Identify the individuals and their functions who made and agreed upon the project plan.
Use of these suggestions will arsive at the same end point of a completed Design FMEA, but with greater applicability to bulk materials. The Design Matrix detennines the complex interactions of fomula ingredients, ingredient characteristics, product characteristics, process constraints, and conditions for customer use. Construct the Design Matrix referring to the example which will follow: Formula Ingsedients o Ingredient Characteristics Product Characteristics Process Constraints Conditions for Use customer process constraints For each design item, enter the current robust threshold range levels and units.
Correlate the potential causes to the potential failure modes using a number, letter, or symbol representing the impact or strength of the relationship. Ask what would happen if a potential cause item is allowed to go under or over its robust minilnuin or maximum, respectively.
After completion of the ranlcings in the Design Matrix, review the categorylcharacteristics for a preliminary assessment of Special Characteristics. Designate any Special Characteristics in colu1m 1. List Effects of Failure Consumer Effects - General teims identifying the loss experienced by the ultimate user of the product e. The following figure provides a guideline for severity rankings. If your situation only uses a small portion of the scale then develop your own scale to improve the differentiation.
If yous situation is greater than two tiers back from the final consumer, then the guideline figure should be adjusted to reflect the effects that will be felt by your customer's customer. Mechanisms are generally described as over or under a certain threshold. These thresholds define the boundaries of the product approval and subsequent requirements for change notification.
The following step provides an alternate method for assigning Occurrence ratings. Rank Occurrence - the ranking scale in the Potential Failure ode and Effects Analysis manual difficult to relate to bulk materials and generally results in very low numbers with little differentiation the ultimate risk.
The following matrix is recommended as a replacement. It evaluates the frequency occurrence based upon observed evidence the formulator has in the design. Obtained from appropriate experimentation on the specific final product and the potential failure mode. Similar Experience: Based upon similar products or processes and the potential failure model. Based upon a clear understanding of the chemical impact of the material and the potential failure mode.
Production part approval process
Frequency ranking clarifications: High is defined as - Repeated failures Moderate is defined as - Occasional failures Low is defined as - Relatively few failures F. Supplementing the Failure Mode Effects and Analysis manual, bulk material desig controls may also include: Variation of supplier specifications.
Design controls identified by a number should be available so that the relevant content of that control cs be understood. The next step provides an alternate method for assigning Detection rankings. Rank Detection - the ranking scale in the Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis manual difficult to relate to bulk materials and generally results in very low numbers with little differentiation the ultimate risk.
The following matrix may be used. It evaluates the Detection as the ability of tl. Syininetric design space analyzed with appropriate statistical tools. Screening Experiments: Screening design or ladder evaluation strategically set to develop DOE.
Infonnationldata based upon similar products or processes. Potential failure mode may result in a field failure 9 ' or constitute a safety hazard or noncompliance with a government regulation High degree of customer dissatisfaction due to the nature of the failure.
May cause serious disruption to subsequent processing of the product or result in the product failing to meet its sales specifications. Will result in a customer complaint and product return. Failure causes some customer dissatisfactioii and may result in a customer complaint or limitation on shelf life. The customer may need to make modifications or adjustments to their process to accommodate the material.
The problem is liltely to be detected as part of an incoming inspection or prior to use 4. The problem will be detected during processing 5. The problem will be detected in subsequent processing steps 6. Failure causing only a slight customer annoyance.
PPAP REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIA
Customer will notice only a slight deterioration or inconvenience with the product or processing of the product. Reasonable to expect that the minor nature of this failure would not cause any real effect on the product or its processing by the customer. Customer will probably not even notice the failure. Failure is almost inevitable. Additional process steps are developed to deal with the failures. I High: Similar processes have experienced repeated failures. The process is not in statistical control.
Similar processes have experienced occasional failures, but not in major proportions. Similar processes have experienced isolated failures. I 2 Remote: Failure is unlikely. No failures ever associated with almost identical processes.
The process is in statistical control. Absolute Certainty of Non-Detection: Controls will not or cannot detect the existence of the defect. Organization controls probably will not detect the existence of the defect, but the defect 9 may be detected by the customer.
Controls may detect the existence of the defect, but detection may not occur until packaging is underway. Controls likely to detect the existence of the failure, but not until lot acceptance testing has been completed. Tests with a higher degree of variability will have the higher ranking.
Controls have a good chance of detecting the existence of the defect before the manufacturing process has been completed. In-Process testing is used to monitor the manufacturing process. Very HigWEarly: Important raw materials are controlled via organization specifications.
UVA intended. These are not necessarily intended to be Special Characteristics. During the design phase, the Examples of manufacturing product characteristics can be process parameters control controls for final product characteristics are: This does not imply pressure, mix rate, test protocol. During manufacture of the bullc material, process parameters are the control characteristics. During transformation from bulk Examples of customer product to final product, both bullc transformation process parameters product characteristics and final control characteristics are: Control Characteristic Mfg.
Prototype when required - A listing of tests, evaluations and their associated specificationsltolerances used to assess an experimental or developmental formulation. This may be the only control plan that is product specific. Pre-launch - Documentation of the productlprocess control characteristics, process controls affecting Special Characteristics, associated tests, and measurement systems employed during product scale up and prior to noi-mal production.
Additional items may be included at the Organization's discretion. Bulk materials often require further processing after sampling in order to make a measurement. Measurements are often destructive in nature and this prevents retesting the same sample. Measurement variability is often imch larger for properties important in the process industries e.
Standardized test methods e. MSA studies are not required where standardized tests are used, however it is still important for thc organization to understand the measurement component of variation in the test methods used. Customer agreement on the actual requirements for MSA for either non-standard test methods or "new-to supplier" test methods should be obtained during the planning phase. Any MSA studies should be applied to each test method associated with Special Characteristics, and no to each individual product measured by the test method.
Therefore, the MSA studies should be conductec as broadly as possible across all products which use a particular test method. If the resulting variability i unacceptable, then either the studies should be conducted on a narrower class of products or action shoulc be taken to improve the test method. The manufacture of bulk materials consists of industries which span a variety of production processe: Often the production process is completed or already in place before sufficient samples can b tested.
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By the time the product is made again, personnel andlor equipment may have changed. Alsc these processes have numerous input variables, many control variables, and a variety of produt variations. Azmul Fadhli. Vinay Joshi. Guru Prasad. Sandeep Malik. Braulio Od. Indra Guntank. More From muhammad romli. Indah Maisuri. Popular in Business General. Sansar Birman. Amal Amran. Claudine Duhapa. Rubina Hannure. Corey Field. Colin Daniel. Allie Gentry.
Shamsher Shiraz. Pujan Shaci Dutta. Amardeep Kaushal. Strathmore Times. Many component parts are being outsourced to overseas manufacturers. This often results in longer lead times and larger order quantities. Initially PPAP was utilized by the automotive and aerospace industries. PPAP is now being utilized by several industries to improve communication and provide quality products. The PPAP process consists of 18 elements that may be required for approval of production level parts.
Not all of the elements are required for every submission.
There are five generally accepted PPAP submission levels. The PPAP manual contains detailed information, guidelines and sample documents useful for completing the process requirements. Why Perform Production Part Approval Process PPAP The PPAP process verifies that the supplier understands all customer engineering design specifications and requirements and that the process is capable of consistently producing product meeting those requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.
PPAP and other quality tools continue to be implemented into more industries; therefore it is important to gain an understanding of the PPAP requirements to remain competitive as a parts supplier. The customer may request a PPAP at any time during the product life. This demands that the supplier must maintain a quality system that develops and documents all of the requirements of a PPAP submission at any time.
This detailed process is a collection of key elements that must be completed to verify that the production process will produce a quality product. Not all of the elements are always required for a PPAP submission.
The particular requirements of the PPAP are usually negotiated during the quoting process. The documentation should also include a copy of the download order. In some cases the supplier is required to supply documentation of material composition. The download order is used to confirm that the correct part is being ordered and that it is at the correct revision level. The design engineer is responsible for verifying that the two drawings match and all critical or key characteristics have been identified.
Engineering Change Documentation If the PPAP is being required due to a request for a change to a part or product, the documentation requesting and approving the change must be included in the PPAP package.The customer may request a PPAP at any time during the product life. It is recognized that in low volume applications, sample sizes as small as 30 pieces may be utilized for preliminary process capability studies. Absolute Certainty of Non-Detection: All of the f o r m referenced in this document may be replaced by computer-generated facsimiles.
Ask what would happen if a potential cause item is allowed to go under or over its robust minilnuin or maximum, respectively. The customer may request a PPAP at any time during the product life. Checking aids may include check fixtures, contour, variable and attribute gages, models or templates.
Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis DFMEA is a cross-functional activity that examines design risk by exploring the possible failure modes and their effects on the product or customer and their probability to occur.